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The Latest API 5L 46th Edition.

Written By pipeline-engineer.com on Sunday, June 30, 2019 | 5:23:00 PM


We are pleased to announce the publication of the 46th edition of Specification 5L, Line Pipe. This new edition provides technical updates that have reached consensus within API’s Subcommittee on Tubular Goods and will now give industry consistent practices in these respective areas of the standard.  These updates are reflective of API’s standards program mission to provide a forum for development of consensus-based industry standards, and technical cooperation to improve the industry’s safety performance and competitiveness.


Key Changes
  • Updated and expanded requirements for mill jointers (differentiate between double-jointers and mill jointers; avoid welding consumables environmental contamination; require qualification standards; new process testing requirements; clarify offset and undercut requirements; standardize marking requirements; reference weld repair annex);
  • Updated requirements for pipe end squareness;
  • Updated requirements for hardness testing on PSL 2 pipe for sour service and PSL 2 pipe for offshore service;
  • New annex for strain-based design requirements (PSL 2 pipe for applications requiring longitudinal plastic strain capacity)
Effective Date and Program Implications
The Monogram Program effective date will be November 1, 2018.
Current licensees shall ensure that products manufactured on and after November 1st, 2018 meet the requirements of API 5L 46thedition in order to be monogrammed.
Also, effective November 1st, 2018, API 5L audits will be conducted to the 46th edition of the document.

5:23:00 PM | 0 comments

Indonesia and Thailand State Owned Oil&Gas Company Take Greater Control Of Mature Oil & Gas Fields

Written By pipeline-engineer.com on Friday, June 28, 2019 | 8:34:00 PM

National Oil Companies (NOCs) in Thailand and Indonesia are using the expiry of existing production-sharing contracts as an opportunity to take greater control of mature oil and gas fields domestically, says GlobalData, a leading data and analytics company.
The company’s latest research reveals that PTT Exploration and Production Public Company Limited (PTTEP) in Thailand and PT Pertamina in Indonesia will operate the majority of production in their respective countries by 2023. PTTEP won the 2018 international auctions for the Bongkot and Erawan concessions and the new concessions start from 2022 with PTTEP as the operator. Two particularly large blocks taken over by Pertamina are the Mahakam block operated by Total SA before 2018, and the Rokan block operated by Chevron Corporation until 2021.


Nicole Zhou, Upstream Analyst at GlobalData, commented, “Countries across Southeast Asia are starting to see their NOCs as the key agents to improving national energy security. However, increasing responsibility for key producing assets may well come at a cost. Pertamina has not operated an asset on the scale of Mahakam and Rokan previously and the longest it has operated one of its top 10 largest projects by gross production is eight years.

“PTTEP currently has a small equity share in some of the fields that will be in the Erawan concession, but it will become the main participant and operator in the new concession. At Bongkot, it is already the operator, but will significantly increase its share in the field by becoming the sole participant.”
Zhou continued, “In Indonesia, regulations introduced over the past three years have made it easier for the state-run NOC, Pertamina, to take over blocks with expiring production-sharing contracts. In Thailand, PTTEP’s bid won based on its gas price – US$3.55/MMbtu – and profit share terms, which are thought to be more competitive than Chevron’s proposed terms.”


As Thailand and Indonesia try to improve the security of their energy supplies and increase their control of reserves, the NOCs may be taking on more than they can handle. Gas production in April 2019 from Mahakam block that Pertamina took over was only 666.6 mmcfd, as the company struggled with rig mobilization and poor weather. The previous year, challenges with rig procurement and mobilization prevented Pertamina from meeting its production target for the block, which was already 75% of 2017. Stabilizing production in these major projects such as Mahakam and Rokan in Indonesia and the Erawan concession in Thailand will be a big stretch for Pertamina and PTTEP.
Zhou added, “The mature fields will require advanced technologies, extensive management experience and consistent production maintenance/enhancement expenditures to compensate for the high natural decline rates. It remains to be seen whether these national oil companies will be able to learn quickly enough to convert their new assets into increased production.”
8:34:00 PM | 0 comments

In a Week, Plains' Cactus II Oil Pipeline Begin to Line Fill , According to Source



NEW YORK (Reuters) - Plains All American Pipeline LP’s 670,000 bpd Cactus II oil pipeline system from the Permian Basin to the Corpus Christi, Texas area will commence line fill within a week, a source with direct knowledge of the matter said. Cactus II construction pipeyard. (photo: Plains All American) The pipeline operator said this month the Cactus II project is progressing on schedule for initial service by the end of the third quarter of 2019.

We have over 90% of the pipe in the ground and we’re working diligently toward completion,” a company executive said during its investor day about two weeks ago. Once line fill is complete, commodities merchant Trafigura, one of the largest shippers on the line, will be shipping full contractual volumes, the source said. Trafigura signed a long-term agreement with Plains last year to transport a total of 300,000 bpd of crude and condensate on the Cactus II pipeline from the Permian Basin to the port of Corpus Christi. The trading house is one of the biggest exporters of U.S. crude and the deal with Plains will allow it deliver crude to U.S. Gulf Coast refiners, ship the oil to its condensate splitters and export terminal in Corpus Christi, which it co-owns with Buckeye Partners L.P (BPL.N).

Pipeline takeaway constraints had slowed production growth and weighed on oil prices in the Permian basin but midstream companies have announced several new projects, such as Cactus II, to help clear the transportation bottleneck. Exports of U.S. crude have surged to a record at nearly 4 million bpd after Washington lifted a ban in late 2015. Other shippers on the Cactus II line include Concho Resources Inc and Anadarko Petroleum Corp, according to the companies. Two other pipelines are also on track to begin service this year to transport Permian crude to the Gulf Coast.

“With the impending start-ups of Cactus II, EPIC, and Gray Oak, there will be about 2 million bpd of crude capacity delivering into Corpus Christi from the Permian, with the majority, if not all, of the incremental supply destined for international markets via the docks,” Barclays analysts said in a note. Plains did not immediately respond to requests for comment.

5:58:00 PM | 0 comments

Intelligent Pigging

Intelligent ("smart") Pigging is an inspection technique whereby an inspection probe, often referred to as a "smart" pig, is propelled through a pipeline while gathering important data, such as the presence and location of corrosion or other irregularities on the inner walls of the pipe.
What makes intelligent pigging different is that smart pigs are capable of performing advanced inspection activities as they travel along the pipe, in addition to just cleaning it. Smart pigs use nondestructive examination techniques such as ultrasonic testing and magnetic flux leakage testing to inspect for erosion corrosion, metal loss, pitting, weld anomalies, and hydrogen induced cracking, among others. They are also able to gather data on the pipeline's diameter, curvature, bends, and temperature.


Smart pigging provides a number of advantages over traditional forms of pipeline inspection. It allows pipelines to be cleaned and inspected without having to stop the flow of product. It also allows the a pipeline to be completely inspected without having to send inspectors down its entire length. Finally, it provides cleaning and inspection services at the same time, saving companies both time and money.
This is how inteligent piging is working.


11:06:00 AM | 0 comments

Deadly Oil Pipeline Explossion in Africa

Written By pipeline-engineer.com on Monday, June 24, 2019 | 6:11:00 PM



(AFP)Scores are feared dead following an oil pipeline explosion in southeastern Nigeria, officials said Monday, with some putting the toll at more than 70. At least eight people died on Saturday in Kom Kom Town in the oil-producing Rivers State, according to an assessment Sunday by the police and a local official.
But locals were “putting the figures at over 70” people killed, the regional coordinator of the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA), Walson Brandon told AFP on Monday. It was difficult to confirm the casualties because “the area is inaccessible after heavy rains this morning,” he added. Ogechi Nnamdi, a local resident at the scene said: “I saw about 20 dead bodies. Eleven had been carried away and more are in the swamp yet to be recovered.” Promise Chibuzo Nwankwo, a local politician, said the exact numbers of dead were unclear “but I can confirm to you that scores of persons were recorded dead as a result of the explosion.”
The explosion occurred on Saturday afternoon while maintenance work was taking place on a pipeline operated by the Pipeline Product Marketing Company, a subsidiary of the state oil company, the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation. Leaks had been spotted on the pipeline in the week before the explosion, said Kennedy Azodeh, an official in charge of maintenance operations. “Locals including vandals stormed the area in boats and canoes to scoop the product”, he said.
The company eventually cut off the supply and began maintenance work “accompanied by police officers and members of the Nigeria Security Civil Defense Corps (NSCDC).” “People were asked to leave, but they refused”, Azodeh said. Several oil pipeline accidents have occurred in recent years in Nigeria, Africa’s biggest oil producer. In October 2018, 30 people died in the explosion of an oil pipeline attacked by looters in southeast Nigeria.
6:11:00 PM | 0 comments

California Natgas Pipeline return delayed



(Reuters) - Southern California Gas Co (SoCalGas) has delayed the estimated return of a natural gas pipeline until July 29 from July 5 after finding a couple of pipeline leaks in remote areas of the desert that the company said were "non-hazardous." SoCalGas, a unit of California energy company Sempra Energy, said this week it found the pipe leaks on June 7 and June 18 while working on Line 235-2, which ruptured on Oct. 1, 2017. After that rupture, SoCalGas took the adjacent Line 4000 out of service for inspection and maintenance. The utility has since returned Line 4000 to service but kept it and another pipe, Line 3000, at reduced pressure until Line 235-2 returns. Once 235-2 returns, SoCalGas said it will upgrade Lines 3000 and 4000.


Gas supplies have been tight in Southern California for years due to the pipeline limitations and reduced availability of the utility's biggest storage field at Aliso Canyon in Los Angeles, following a massive leak between October 2015 and February 2016. SoCalGas said the reductions or outages on Lines 235-2, 3000 and 4000 reduced pipeline system capacity by about 0.7 bcfd. Once SoCalGas starts returning the pipelines this summer, the utility has said its overall pipeline capacity should rise to 2.705 bcfd from around 2.355 bcfd now. SoCalGas has projected the increase in pipeline capacity plus storage withdrawals of around 0.68 bcfd would enable it to meet expected peak demand of 3.368 bcfd this summer without pulling gas out of Aliso. After the Aliso leak, the state mandated the storage cavern be used only to maintain system reliability after all other storage facilities and pipelines have been exhausted.


SoCalGas has said Lines 235-2 and 3000 are largely 1957 vintage pipelines, while Line 4000 is largely a 1960 vintage pipe. Line 3000 extends about 125 miles west from South Needles on the California-Nevada border to the Newberry Springs compressor station about 20 miles east of Barstow in the south central part of the state. Line 235 extends about 46 miles west from the Newberry compressor to Victorville, which is about 80 miles northeast of Los Angeles. Once all of the pipes are back, SoCalGas has said its pipeline capacity would rise to around 3.085 bcfd.


10:49:00 AM | 0 comments

Contentious Trans Mountain Expansion Pipeline In Canada

Written By pipeline-engineer.com on Saturday, June 22, 2019 | 6:09:00 AM

OTTAWA/CALGARY (Reuters) - Canada on Tuesday approved as expected a hotly contested proposal to expand the western Canadian crude oil pipeline it bought last year, providing hope for a depressed energy industry but angering environmental groups.
Construction on the expansion of the Trans Mountain pipeline is scheduled to resume this year, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau told a news conference. A senior government official, speaking on condition of anonymity, said earlier that Ottawa expected legal challenges to the approval. The project would triple Trans Mountain's capacity to carry 890,000 barrels per day from Alberta's oil sands to British Columbia's Pacific coast, alleviate congestion on existing pipelines and diversify exports away from the United States. Trudeau, who faces a tough fight in a national election scheduled for October, has been under pressure both from western Canadian politicians who accuse him of doing too little for the oil industry, and from environmental groups, which see the oil sands as a highly polluting source of crude production.

"This isn't an either/or proposition. It is in Canada's national interest to protect our environment and invest in tomorrow, while making sure people can feed their families today," he said, adding he knew some people would be disappointed. The Liberal government previously approved the expansion in 2016 but that decision was overturned last year after a court ruled the government had not adequately consulted indigenous groups. The approval was widely expected as the government spent $3.4 billion to buy the 66-year-old pipeline from Kinder Morgan Canada Ltd last year to ensure that the expansion proceeded. Western Canada's oil production has expanded faster than pipeline capacity, causing a glut of crude to build up.

Trudeau said the government would make a series of accommodations to indigenous concerns about the pipeline, including on protections of killer whale and fish habitats in British Columbia. One group of indigenous activists in British Columbia, called Tiny House Warriors, vowed in a statement that the expansion would not be built on their territory. "The Trudeau government does not have the right to put a pipeline through unceded Secwepemc land," spokeswoman Kanahus Manuel said. FURTHER OBSTACLES AHEAD The government's latest approval can be appealed through the courts. Trans Mountain also requires various permits and route approvals in British Columbia, where that province's left-leaning New Democratic Party government opposes the project. The B.C. government also plans to appeal a recent British Columbia Appeal Court ruling that the provincial government cannot restrict the flow of oil on pipelines that cross provincial boundaries.

British Columbia Premier John Horgan said his government was "disappointed" with the federal government's decision but would not unduly withhold construction permits. Construction is expected to take 2-1/2 years, investment bank Tudor Pickering Holt & Co said. Assuming work on the expansion resumes this year, the expanded pipeline could be in service in early 2022. "We will measure success not by today's decision but by the beginning of actual construction and more importantly by the completion of the pipeline," said Alberta Premier Jason Kenney, a frequent critic of Trudeau. "This is now a test for Canada to demonstrate to the rest of the world we are a safe place in which to invest."

The decision will help create billions in economic benefits across Canada as it allows Canadian oil to reach higher-paying international markets, the Canadian Energy Pipeline Association said in a statement. Eighty percent of the expanded pipeline's total capacity has been contracted to companies including Suncor Energy Inc , Canadian Natural Resources Ltd and Exxon-owned Imperial Oil Ltd, according to a National Energy Board filing. The Canadian government has long said it planned to sell the pipeline once most of the obstacles to its construction have been cleared. Numerous indigenous groups have said they are interested in investing in it.


6:09:00 AM | 0 comments

THERMAL ANALYSIS MODEL FOR HOT-TAP WELDING

Written By pipeline-engineer.com on Thursday, June 20, 2019 | 12:49:00 AM




(EWI) developed the PRCI Thermal Analysis Model for Hot Tap Welding V4.2 for PRCI. The model is intended to provide welding engineers with guidance for establishing safe parameters for welding onto in-service pipelines (hot-tap welding).

PRCI Thermal Analysis Model for Hot-Tap Welding There are two primary concerns with welding onto in-service pipelines. The first is for welder safety during welding, since there is a risk of the welding arc causing the pipe wall to be penetrated allowing the contents to escape. The second concern is for the integrity of the pipeline following welding, since welds made in-service cool at an accelerated rate as the result of the ability of the flowing contents to remove heat from the pipe wall. These welds, therefore, are likely to have hard heat-affected zones (HAZ) and a subsequent susceptibility to hydrogen cracking. The model allows burnthrough risk to be controlled by limiting inside surface temperature and hydrogen cracking risk to be controlled by limiting weld-cooling rates.



Industry Leader in Pipeline Software Tools

The use of this software model is not a substitute for procedure qualification. The model provides guidance for establishing safe parameters, but provides no means for demonstrating that these parameters are practical under field conditions. To demonstrate that the parameters are practical, a welding procedure based on these predictions should be qualified under simulated conditions. (1) A brief history of cooling rate prediction methods for welds made onto in-service pipelines is given in Appendix A of the user manual. Software Description The PRCI Thermal Analysis Model for Hot-Tap Welding is a stand-alone, user-friendly Windows application based on a complex finite element mathematical model. The model uses a proprietary finite-element solver developed at Edison Welding Institute (EWI). Mesh generation capabilities include sleeve, branch, and bead-onpipe geometries, the latter for buttering layers and weld deposition repairs. Heat-sink capacity values can also be predicted for comparison with fieldmeasured values. The multi document user interface (MDI) allows multiple cases to be run and heat input selection curves to be generated. The model was designed and developed to meet the requirements of API 1104, API 1107, ASME Section IX, BS4515, BS6990, and CSA Z662.



THERMAL ANALYSIS MODEL FOR HOT-TAP WELDING Systems Requirements Running the PRCI Thermal Analysis Model for Hot-Tap Welding V 4.2 software requires the following: 200 MHz or higher processor clock speed recommended Intel Pentium/Celeron or AMD K6/Athlon/Duron or compatible processor Software Validation The PRCI Thermal Analysis Model for Hot-Tap Welding was validated by comparing model predictions to experimental data generated during a previous PRCI-sponsored program at EWI and to predictions made using the existing Battelle model. The Cooling Rate Prediction capability results indicate that Battelle model predictions tend to be non-conservative for thin-wall materials, particularly at low flow rates, and very conservative for thick-wall materials. The PRCI model predictions tend to be relatively accurate, with a consistent level of conservatism across wall thickness range. Price: The current Thermal Analysis Model is available only on a lease basis


12:49:00 AM | 0 comments

Differences between API 5L PSL 1 and PSL 2

Written By pipeline-engineer.com on Wednesday, June 19, 2019 | 2:00:00 AM


An API 5L line pipes manufactured in two varieties PSL 1 and PSL 2. But what is PSL? PSL stands for Product Specification Levels. PSL stands for Product Specification Levels.


Pipes are used in different type of environment such as corrosive and non-corrosive.  Pipes used in severe corrosive environment required material that can withstand such process condition. On other hands for normal services, a standard quality level pipe will also serve the purpose.    
The difference between PSL1 and PSL2 pipes are as follows;

  1. Difference in Chemical Properties
  2. Difference in Mechanical Properties
  3. Difference in Manufacturing
  4. Difference in Inspection and Defect Repair
  5. Difference in Certification & Traceability
2:00:00 AM | 0 comments

Expand Infrastructure for Growing Argentina Production

Written By pipeline-engineer.com on Saturday, June 15, 2019 | 10:33:00 AM

(P&GJ) – ExxonMobil announced it will proceed with long-term development in Argentina's Vaca Muerta shale, including the construction of pipeline and export infrastructure to support an expected 55,000 oil-equivalent bpd by 2024.
Development of Argentina’s Bajo del Choique-La Invernada block will include 90 wells, a central production facility and export infrastructure connected to the Oldeval pipeline and refineries, the Irving, Texas-based oil giant said.
If the expansion is successful, ExxonMobil could invest in a second phase, which would produce up to 75,000 oil-equivalent barrels per day. Timing of the second phase depends on initial project performance and business and market conditions, among other factors.
“We are encouraged by the excellent results of our Neuquén pilot project and look forward to increased production through this significant expansion,” said Staale Gjervik, senior vice president of unconventional at ExxonMobil. “The reforms implemented by the federal and provincial governments have been critically important to enabling the development of the Vaca Muerta basin as one of the country’s main energy resources.”



In 2015, the Neuquén provincial government granted ExxonMobil a 35-year concession in Vaca Muerta for the Bajo del Choique-La Invernada block. ExxonMobil began an exploration pilot program the following year and now has three producing wells, and three additional wells moving into production. A production facility, gas pipeline and oil terminal have been in operation since 2017 and were recently connected to the Pacific Gas pipeline by a 16-inch pipeline.
Bajo del Choique-La Invernada is a 99,000-acre block, located about 58 miles northwest of Añelo and 114 miles northwest of Neuquén city. ExxonMobil Exploration Argentina is operator and holds 90 percent interest in partnership with Gas y Petróleo del Neuquén, which holds 10 percent interest. ExxonMobil Exploration Argentina is leading its unconventional operations in the Neuquén basin under a joint venture agreement with Qatar Petroleum, which has 30 percent interest in ExxonMobil’s upstream affiliates in Argentina.
“ExxonMobil has been an active player in the Neuquén basin since 2010 and in Argentina for more than 100 years,” said Daniel De Nigris, ExxonMobil’s lead country manager. “We will continue to work closely with the government and our partners and will use our expertise and capabilities to bring jobs and other benefits to local communities.”
10:33:00 AM | 0 comments

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